The abandoned former Reading Railroad outbound passenger station at 9th and Spring Garden Streets is an important landmark of Philadelphia’s railroad history. The railroad line that it serviced until 1984 had once been the right of way for Philadelphia’s first operating railroad, the Philadelphia, Germantown and Norristown (PG&N), which ran in the bed of 9th Street. The PG&N, affectionately known to its riders as the “Pidgeon,” had its downtown stop at 9th and Green Streets, one block away. Below Spring Garden Street its line extended down the bed of 9th Street to connect with Philadelphia’s first chartered railroad, the Northern Liberties and Penn Township Railroad, incorporated in April 1829, portions of which remain in the bed of Willow Street. This now-derelict station is at the epicenter of the rail line’s history and could be part of the neighborhood’s bright future.
Riding the Rails with Old Ironsides
Philadelphians in the 1820s were fascinated by news of the development of the world’s first railroad, Great Britain’s Stockton & Darlington, which used an iron locomotive propelled by steam in 1825, the same year that America’s Erie and Schuylkill Canals were completed. In 1827, the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company constructed a railroad to haul coal by gravity from its mines down to the Lehigh Canal at Mauch Chunk, today’s Jim Thorp. Among the many visitors to observe this railroad was Edward Bonsall of Germantown, who decided to organize a railroad linking Germantown with what was then the city of Philadelphia before its 1854 consolidation with Philadelphia County. He was issued a charter in April, 1831 and acquired permission from property owners along 9th Street to construct his track there.
One track was completed as far north as Germantown’s Church Lane, its rails mounted on stone sills with a gap between them wide enough so that a horse could walk in it. Its opening was formally celebrated on June 6, 1832 with a nine-car train, each car drawn by one horse, that proceeded up to a Germantown banquet. Regular service began the next day with six Philadelphia and six Germantown departures.
In April, 1831, Matthias Baldwin constructed a miniature locomotive for Franklin Peale’s museum that was capable of pulling two small passenger cars around the museum’s perimeter. Crowds flocked to experience this sensation. In November 1831, the Pigeon contracted with Baldwin to build a steam locomotive, “Old Ironsides,” delivered a year later, Baldwin’s first commercial locomotive.
The Pigeon would operate Old Ironsides only in fair weather, with horses used when foul weather dictated. Each morning’s first train would be horse-drawn from Philadelphia and each first train from Germantown would be powered by gravity until it rolled to a stop at Girard Avenue when horses would be attached to draw it to the Philadelphia depot. As there was no crew aboard this gravity-powered train, a passenger would volunteer to collect the fares and present them to the conductor at Girard Avenue. Freight cars would be delivered to Nicetown Station for their owners’ pickup by horsepower to continue on to Germantown, but they could return the empties to Nicetown by gravity.
Old Ironsides worked well for the Pidgeon, and it was eventually traded in on a new Baldwin model in 1846. Baldwin refurbished Old Ironsides and sold it to a New England railroad where it served its remaining days. Anticipating the 1876 Centennial, Baldwin attempted to reacquire Old Ironsides, but could find only a few parts and its name plate, so Baldwin created an exact replica in wood for the exhibition.
The Rise and Fall of an Ambitious Railman
The Pigeon was extended to Manayunk in 1834 and further to Norristown and south to Willow Street in 1835. The rail company constructed its Germantown Depot on Main Street–today’s Germantown Avenue–and in 1854 extended its line northward seven miles to its terminus in Chestnut Hill, having leased the Chestnut Hill Railroad Company in 1852. The opening of the 9th and Green station coincided with the completion of the Chestnut Hill railroad. The Pigeon saw heavy service during the Civil War as hospitals were constructed in the open lands along its route for the thousands of casualties streaming into Philadelphia. These included the 400-bed McClellan General Hospital near Nicetown, the 550-bed Cuyler General Hospital near Germantown’s Main Street Station and the 27-acre 4,000-bed Mower U.S. General Hospital in Chestnut Hill at Wyndmoor Station.
The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company, known then and now as the Reading, leased the Pigeon on December 1, 1870. This was during the presidency of Franklin B. Gowen when the Reading expanded, or attempted to, in all directions and into new lines of business. These efforts ultimately lead to the Reading’s bankruptcy and Gowen’s suicide.
Franklin Gowen was a native of Mount Airy. His mansion, Magnolia Villa, is now known as Hagan Hall and is on the grounds of the United Lutheran Seminary on Gowen Avenue. He first came to the Reading’s attention as district attorney of Schuylkill County, where he established his reputation for prosecuting Irish immigrant Mollie Maguires in Mauch Chunk, the county seat. Gowen was hired to run its law department and within six years he had become the Reading’s president. His arrival at the Reading’s offices in Philadelphia coincided with the expansion of its principal rival, the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR). Until his appointment, the Reading had remained laser-focused on its core business hauling anthracite coal from Schuylkill County to Philadelphia, even leasing out its passenger business to another carrier, but that would soon change.
The PRR initially had focused on developing its east-west Philadelphia-Pittsburgh business, but in 1869, acquired the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad, vastly extending its Midwestern reach, and then followed up with two more: the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore entering the city at Grays Ferry and the United Railroads of New Jersey coming as far south as Kensington from Newark. The PRR connected them with a railway line that is now a part of the Amtrak Northeast Corridor from the Philadelphia Zoo to Frankford. These latter two acquisitions provided the PRR with a route from Baltimore to the New York waterfront. Gowen perceived this as an existential threat and vowed to challenge it.
Gowen expanded the Reading’s activities to include coal mining, which was his undoing as his entry into this business with borrowed British funds occurred just as an oversupply of anthracite sent its price plummeting and forced the Reading into bankruptcy. But he also extended its trackage through strategic acquisitions. Having leased the Pigeon, he now acquired the parallel North Penn Railroad (in the bed of Philadelphia’s American Street), which ran up to Bethlehem with a branch leading from Jenkintown to Trenton and then to Philadelphia, Newtown, and New York, which provided a connection between the Pigeon and the North Penn between Nicetown and Cheltenham. This got the Reading to Jenkintown and east to Trenton, where Gowen negotiated rights to two New Jersey railroads, Delaware and Bound Brook and Jersey Central, which got him to Jersey City. The Reading looked well-positioned to take on the PRR, but then the bankruptcy occurred.
Making Connections With Reading Railroad
Financier extraordinaire J. P. Morgan assumed control of the Reading and installed his own management team, Austin Corbin and Archibald MacCloud, in 1886 and forced Gowen out. On surveying the bankruptcy’s detritus Morgan noted that its new connections were greatly increasing its passenger traffic. Its non-coal general freight traffic was also increasing on the lines that Gowen had leased cris-crossing industrial Philadelphia, by now the “Workshop of the World.” Even its bituminous (soft coal) business was growing rapidly. Corbin and MacCloud decided to pursue investments in these growing passenger and freight markets.
The Reading now owned three important Philadelphia passenger stations as a result of its acquisitions. In addition to its own at Broad and Callowhill Streets connecting it to Pottstown and Reading, it had acquired the Pigeon’s 9th and Green station and the North Penn station at 3rd and Berks Streets in Kensington. Surveying its properties, the Reading first decided to explore expanding the 9th and Green line. It hired Philadelphia’s favorite railroad station architect Frank Furness to prepare plans for its expansion, but the net result did not provide the capacity that was forecast to be needed and it continued rail access via the congested bed of 9th Street and so these plans were filed away. Instead, it would embark on a bold idea to rival its competitor, create a strikingly attractive large station right in the center of the city on Market Street–the Reading Terminal.
The PRR built its Broad Street Station at City Hall in 1881 with its approach tracks from the Schuylkill River elevated over City-owned streets on a separate grade so as not to interfere with traffic. The City imposed a similar requirement on the Reading in order to acquire the permits necessary for its terminal. This would be a much larger, lengthier, and more difficult grade separation project than the PRR had faced. However, this was something that the City very much wanted to happen because North Philadelphia was then rapidly developing. Having freight and passenger trains in the bed of 9th Street was becoming nightmarish. The City agreed to participate with the Reading in funding its construction. This was a truly monumental project, as not only the track right-of-way had to be elevated, but also its passenger stations would have to be rebuilt. All the while, passenger trains would need to run daily into the new Reading Terminal in the bed of 9th Street.
Reading built its new terminal at the final grade elevation agreed upon with the City, but its 9th Street approach tracks were still down at street level when Reading Terminal opened in February 1893. It constructed a temporary connection about a half mile long from the new station at 12th and Market Streets curving northeastward back to its at-grade line in 9th Street, connecting with it in vicinity of Brown Street. It would no longer need the Pigeon’s 9th and Green station, although it continued to use it as a freight station until demolishing it in 1909, but it needed temporary inbound and outbound stations nearby to service 9th and Green’s local passenger traffic until the track grade was finally readjusted. It chose to build these temporary stations at Spring Garden Street.
It took the Reading almost two decades to elevate its tracks, known as the “9th Street El” or the “Reading Viaduct,” as far north as Nicetown where the natural grade of the topography rising toward the northwest and less intense development allowed it to proceed further north at street grade. This was only just a pause in their grade separation activities, as these resumed when the Reading electrified its tracks to Germantown and Chestnut Hill with service beginning under the wire in February 1933.
With the increase in business that the Reading was experiencing, it became necessary for them to build more office space than they had created in Reading Terminal’s headhouse. In 1909, the Reading built an office annex building on the west side of its track at Spring Garden Street on the site of its temporary inbound station there, incorporating this station into the office building’s east elevation. In 1912, having completed its work north of Brown Street, the Reading returned to its connection between its terminal and Poplar, replacing its temporary girder bridge across Spring Garden Street with a wider masonry bridge at a higher elevation and building a new outbound passenger station on the northwest corner of 9th and Spring Garden Streets. The station still exists, but it is in near ruins.
Reversing Decades of Decline
These inbound and outbound stations remained actively used until completion of the 1.3 mile long Center City Commuter Connection Tunnel in 1985, serving commuters traveling to the various pharmaceutical companies that had gravitated to the area within walking distance of the stations–firms such as Sharp & Dohme, H.K. Mulford, Powers-Weightman-Rosengarten Company, and Smith Kline & French. It also served the staff of nearby schools and the national mint. The Reading’s office building there became artist studios in 1981. After a fire in 2015 more than 100 artists studios were evicted by the Department of Licenses and Inspections. It is now owned by Arts & Crafts Holdings and marketed as a creative workspace called 915 SpringGarden.
The Northern Liberties neighborhood surrounding Spring Garden Street Station went into decline after World War II as industries fled the city, but it has experienced a remarkable resurgence since 2000. Philadelphia’s own Rail Park has come to life on the complex of former Reading lines emanating out of Reading Terminal, its first phase proceeding eastward from near Broad and Callowhill Streets. There is also a private development project underway near the northern end of the abandoned 9th Street Elevated at the ten-story former Strawbridge and Clothier warehouse which is being converted into residential use by Post Brothers. This project is four blocks above Spring Garden Street and a block below Girard Avenue. When completed, it will form a northern anchor for the Rail Park, as above it the track remains in use as the active lead to the Center City Commuter Connection Tunnel. While the Rail Park’s development is currently focused on extending it further beyond what it has already completed, it is possible, indeed to be expected, that when the Strawbridge & Clothier warehouse project is finished its occupants will want their location on the 9th Street El to become part of the Rail Park.
This writer was disuaded from climbing onto the 9th Street El by the “No Trespassing” and “High Voltage” warning signs, but found an armchair way to tour it via YouTube videos of which there are many. Two recommended ones are Terry Robinson’s “Reading Viaduct,” a 1:25 minute aerial tour which appears to have been filmed from a drone and User ej6385’s video, “The Reading Viaduct,” a 1:55 minute tour. When viewing both get your bearings from the five-story 915SpringGarden building and look for the triangular shape of the northbound station and its platform across the tracks from it. Imagine this station and platform as a cafe for visitors like the one on the High Line above Chelsea Market in Manhattan. Can you taste the espresso?
The Reading’s original Germantown depot still saw use as a stub end station into the1920s. It was demolished in the 1980s after an arson fire.
Well when us it gonna get done?
Did the Montgomery Avenue trolley run along Poplar Street (formerly Montgomery Place)?
Using the 1910 Bromley Philadelphia Atlas I was able to locate the position of the photograph at 9th and Columbia (today’s CB Moore) looking north, toward the next street up, Montgomery Avenue, where a trolley crossing the Reading tracks can be seen. Poplar Street is several blocks to the south, below Girard Avenue.
Nice article.. My Great Grandfather came to Philadelphia end of 1917/early 1918… He puts on his WW1 forms His first residence was R.R.Y.M.C.A
.. was there a YMCA place for new to the city people with nothing.. a living space there or shower / food availability .. Also, who owns it now? My whiskey Pop’s McCann Whiskey is named after him and he is on the bottle along with his wife who he met just after arriving from Scranton and working in the coals mines for some years.. starting a new life in philadelphia.. But soon finding himself in France serving in WW1… Thank You.
When I was researching this story I saw several Hagley Museum photos of the Reading RR YMCA on 9th Street, taken before the track was elevated in the early 1900s. The Reading extensively photographed the buildings along 9th Street.
Great Story…Inhave lived in NL since 1982. I was living and working in Old City and needed to buy a house, I couldn’t afford Old City so I bought in NL and gutted and renovated it. I’m a “dirty city kid” and have no plans to leave. Hope I can afford the RE Taxes when the LOOP Program ends.
It had a beautiful Florentine highly detailed overhanging cornice in copper that was stripped away an probably junked in the mid eighties. A tragedy.
Hidden City, you’ve done it again. Every article an encyclopedia — but it reads like a thriller! Thanks so much for these carefully researched, absolutely interesting articles.
As Germantown residents, we read this with great interest. However, you have Franklin Gowen’s career timeline a little fractured in this passage:
He first came to the Reading’s attention as district attorney of Schuylkill County, where he established his reputation for prosecuting Irish immigrant Mollie Maguires in Mauch Chunk, the county seat.
Gowen was the PRR’s legal counsel, then became president, and then took on the persecution and prosecution (as special prosecutor) of the Mollys. He was only briefly Schuylkill County DA a dozen years earlier.
Also Mauch Chunk (now Jim Thorpe) is the Carbon County seat. Pottsville, where most of the Mollys were hanged, is the Schuylkill County seat.
We are both partially right and wrong. Gowen was only briefly DA of Schuylkill County, in its Pottsville County seat. Gowen then left for the Reading law department, becoming president six years later. He enjoyed practicing law and had himself appointed special prosecutor of the Mollies in Pottsville, and was involved, behind the scenes via Pinkerton Detective Agency, in the trial of Mollies in Mauch Chunk, county seat of the aptly named Carbon County. Gowen is a very interesting and complex character worthy of a biography, not the anti-Catholic, anti-Irish bigot that history portrays him. As Reading president he was a friend and advisor of Archbishop Wood, just like his father, a member of the Ancient Order of Hibernians, was of Bishop Neumann during the Know Nothing era. BTW, one of the Mollies hanged in Mauch Chunk was named Thomas Duffy.
Sorry, that should be Reading on second reference, not PRR!
So, who exactly currently owns the station at 9th and Spring Garden?
I would spot a tenner on SEPTA, who inherited it during the Regional Rail Reorganization of 1973-1976. Conrail provided operations until 1986 on SEPTA lines, when SEPTA took over operations.
It would be SEPTA as they inherited it when they took over the Reading and PRR to run their current Regional Rail lines.
It is owned by Reading International, successor to the Reading Railroad. They are based in Los Angeles California
It would be nice if the building would be revamped as an access point with subdivisions for small food stalls. Like a mini Redding terminal. I doubt this would happen since the building is not protected.
Never say never. Remember what New York’s High Line looked like in the 1990s.
True. However, I don’t think such a creative reuse would occur. I would bet that demo and building of an apartment / office tower would happen.
Interesting history about how and when the philadelphia railway system began and by who. Gives once perspective on the past of the philly railway system. Thank you.
Awesome article 👍. Wish that this will inspire city planners and citizens to bring back the old golden days. Starting to revitalize the railroad will bring in less pollution, lesser vehicle traffic and above all to make feel proud of Philadelphia’s heritage which again will be beneficial for tourism development
Totally agree, Ravindra. Spring Garden Station will never come back in rail use b/c its access was cut off by the lead track to the Center City Commuter Connection Tunnel, but once upon a time there was another station just north of there, on Girard Avenue, which the Reading terminated in the 1950s. The station was actually on the Elevated structure. You can see a photo of it on phillyhistory.org. Hit the Search Now button and type in the address ‘9th Street and Girard Avenue’ and you will see a photo of this station from November 13, 1913. Building on left was the Girard Ave Farmers Market, demo’d in 1960s. That Ludlow-Francisville area is up and coming, could use a station again.
That commemorative card picturing Old Ironsides was “Compliments of Hoopes and Townsend,” and copyrighted in 1883, 17 years after the death of Matthias Baldwin. Hoopes lived at 1733 Spring Garden Street and had his rivet factory across Broad Street from Baldwin Locomotive Works. His building at Noble and 13th has been turned into condos, and marks the current western edge of the linear Rail Park. Hoopes knew how to patronize his biggest customer! See https://www.baldwinparkphilly.org/the-hoopes-mansion for more.
He had a short commute!
I would wager that Mr. Hoopes had dinner more than once in the nearby mansion of Matthew Baird, one of Baldwin’s business partners, at 814 N Broad St. Baird’s mansion was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. You can see photos of its exterior and interior on phillyhistory.org. It was just a few blocks up from the Baldwin locomotive works at Broad and Spring Garden Street.
I walked by this station for six years from Randolph Street and Spring Garden (between 5th and 6th Sts) to The Thaddeus Stevens School at 13th and Spring Garden. Thanks for posting this!
This was an excellent article. I was one of the artists who lost his studio at 915. That was a tragedy in itself and the owners of the building were able to clear 100+ leases without any issue. Hmmm. But, also a resident of nearby Callowhill, I’ve always wanted to see Spring Garden come up. I have walked on the El behind 915, above the abandoned stop at 9th and Spring Garden, and it’s wide and amazing. I hope we’re lucky enough to see that become part of the Rail Park.
Mel – I loved attending ‘915’s annual artists’ open house events. So sorry for everyone’s loss!
When the immigrants were admitted to America from Ellis Island (1902-1924) and they were put on rr cars headed for Philly and dropped off after midnight at 9th & Spring Garden “freight depot,” which building was that and do you have a photo of this “freight depot” which may have been a block south of Spring Garden at this time.
Your ‘freight depot’ may have been the Terminal Freight House, formerly the Spring Garden Market, and now home of Union Transfer, a delightful music venue on Spring Garden Street near 10th St. I include a photo the Spring Garden Market in my Hidden City April 14, 2020 article on Reading Terminal Market.
Wow I’ve passed this building so many time and had no idea it was an old station.
Excellent article!!! I absolutely love railroad history especially here in Philly. Thanks and keep up the great work!
If the building is abandoned, does that mean it has no owner? Can one simply occupy it and claim ownership? How much would it cost to buy it and minimally renovate it?
I would guess $300 to $400 per square foot to turn this building into living spaces. Maybe a little less for light commercial space. This would include new roof, windows, fire suppression, lead paint/asbestos abatement, etc.
What’s the condition of the brickwork? Repointing of that is probably not in the square foot budget above.
This could host an expresso/coffee shop with food sales
Excellent well researched article on Phillys railroad history! Upon drawing comparisons to NYCs High Line I believe we already have our Chelsea Market in the visage of our beloved Reading Terminal Market! The next logical step would be to link up our existing Rail Park directly into the amazing space that is the Reading Terminal shed.
Tony – totally agree! Ed
This is a wealth of detailed technical and business related information! My ancestors arrived here from Scotland in 1819 and left for Beaver PA in 1838, so this painted a picture of the city during their tenure. Can you recommend resources for guessing how they might have traveled across the state with 6 teen-aged children in 1838? It seems there were many options with the Lancaster (macadam!) turnpike/ Cumberland + old military routes across the Alleghenies; or combinations of canals and pieces of new railroads in place to Harrisburg. I want to make a best guess in a book I have written about them. Thank you.
Susan – just speculation, but the most likely option your ancestors would have taken would have been the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania’s 394 mile long Main Line of Public Works extending from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh, completed in 1834. It consisted of an 82 mile railroad to Columbia via Lancaster, a 171 mile canal from there to Hollidaysburg, the 37 mile long Allegheny Portage Railroad over the mountains to Johnstown, and a 104 mile long canal ending in Pittsburgh. I discuss its creation in the first chapter of my book, ‘Philadelphia – A Railroad History.’ Beaver County is a short distance west of Pittsburgh, along the Ohio border.