The Street Under The Bank

March 8, 2012 | by Harry Kyriakodis


A late teen or early 1920s view looking south the portal of the Market Street Subway, showing Front Street up top and Water Street below–thus reflecting the original Delaware River bank’s topography.

Excerpted from Philadelphia’s Lost Waterfront (The History Press, 2011)

Water Street was laid down alongside Philadelphia’s waterfront in the mid-1690s and perhaps as late as 1705. Early settlers first called it “the street under the bank.” It began as an uneven footpath, then turned into a muddy cartway and finally became a paved—with cobblestones and then Belgian blocks—lane. It was first named King Street, supposedly because goods crossing over it one way or the other had to pay a duty to the king of England.

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, communities founded by the English up and down the Delaware River (and in other places) often had waterside streets named “King” and “Front.” King Street’s name was changed to Water Street about the time of the American Revolution, for understandable reasons.

A 1930s view of Water Street looking north at the Philadelphia Anchorage of the Ben Franklin Bridge. I-95 now covers the street in that locale.

Following William Penn’s return to England in 1684, the growing demand for land along the Delaware’s edge–and the correlating opportunity for profit–caused the Commissioners of the Proprietary to issue patents for larger bank lots on the east side of Front Street. Then, in 1690, Samuel Carpenter and neighboring bankers (bank lot owners) presented Penn’s agents with a petition that sought “full and free liberty to build as high as they please above the top of the [bank of the Delaware], which they were not to do by a clause in the said rexive [recited] former Patents.” Penn’s commissioners acquiesced, approving the petition and formulating the “Regulation of the Bank of the River Delaware,” an act executed on April 26, 1690.

The “Regulation of the Bank” instrument formally authorized and established what eventually became Water Street. Bank lot owners were instructed to “regularly leave thirty feet of ground in the clear, for a cartway under and along the said whole Bank,” which was to become “a common and public cartway for all persons by day and by night, forever hereafter.” It was up to the individual landowners to clear the ground, install a hard surface and provide drainage.

The street was the first true incursion on the Delaware River bank. John Watson wrote in his Annals of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania:

I feel vexed and chagrined, while I pen this article, to think for what mere personal purposes fair Philadelphia was so much marred! How mortified and vexed must Penn have felt on his second arrival in 1699, to witness the growing deformity of his city, and to see how far individual interest had swerved his agents from the general good!

A late 1800s or early 1900s view of the wooden arch cover over Water Street at Dock Street.

William Penn later realized that things had gone amiss and that Carpenter and his fellow bankers had taken advantage of the situation. Penn sent new directives to his Philadelphia agents, including the following in 1703: “I will have no more bank lots disposed of, nor keys [docks] yet made into the river, without my special and fresh leave, for reasons justifiable.” But by then it was too late to correct the problems that had ensued since 1690.

Now, what a busy street the street under the bank was in the 1700s! Watson wrote: “An aged lady, S.N., told me, that in her youth the ladies attended balls held in Water street, now deemed so unfit a place!” It seems that a dancehall was inaugurated in 1748 at a wharf on Water Street between Walnut and Dock. This was the initiation of Philadelphia’s famed Dancing Assembly.

In 1754, Lewis Hallam (the “Father of the American Theater”) and a troupe of London actors performed for two months on Water Street, just north of Lombard. This may have been the first legitimate theater in Philadelphia. The venue was a brick storehouse owned by William Plumsted, mayor of the city from 1750 to 1755. Hallam remodeled the place and called it the New Theater. Resistance by neighboring Quakers shut it down.

Google maps view of the 300 block of North Water Street today, looking south from Callowhill Street.

The first theatrical company to appear in Philadelphia probably used this Water Street warehouse years earlier, in 1749. The troupe–by the name of Murray & Kean–reportedly staged Joseph Addison’s Cato, although Richard III may also have been performed, maybe for the first time in the New World. Quaker authorities promptly ran this traveling group out of town.

An actual lion was exhibited for a couple weeks at “Abraham Bickly’s new store in Water Street.” This was in September 1727; admission was one shilling. The lion–the first in North America–was exhibited in several cities throughout the 1720s. Bickly (or Bickley) was a member of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania who lived within walking distance of his storehouse and wharf on Water Street.

The same block of Water Street, fronting the Delaware River and showing Penny Pot Tavern, looking north from Vine Street.

Water Street was a dirty road and its filthiness must have bothered Stephen Girard a great deal. After all, he lived and worked along the lane for much of his life. As we all know, Girard left the City of Philadelphia half a million dollars for enhancing the Delaware’s western edge. His will directed that water pipes, pumps and fire hydrants should be installed along Water Street from Vine to South Streets “to conduct the water through the main streets and the centre alleys to the river Delaware” for the purpose of cleaning the streets and the bank step alleyways. These improvements were most certainly carried out, but it’s unknown if Water Street was ever regularly flushed as Girard had desired.

Almost all of this storied and vibrant street was obliterated in the late 1960s-early 1970s for the construction of Interstate 95. A few blocks of Water Street survive between Summer and Callowhill Streets, along which once stood the famed Penny Pot Tavern. Another segment remains behind Gloria Dei Church, although this was formerly Ostego Street. And a fragment of Water Street exists at the rear of the High Pressure Fire Service building at Race Street.


About the Author

Harry Kyriakodis Harry Kyriakodis, author of Philadelphia's Lost Waterfront (2011), Northern Liberties: The Story of a Philadelphia River Ward (2012) and The Benjamin Franklin Parkway (2014), regularly gives walking tours and presentations on unique yet unappreciated parts of the city. A founding/certified member of the Association of Philadelphia Tour Guides, he is a graduate of La Salle University and Temple University School of Law, and was once an officer in the U.S. Army Field Artillery. He has collected what is likely the largest private collection of books about the City of Brotherly Love: over 2700 titles new and old.


  1. rob says:


  2. April says:

    Fragments of the street exist in Kensington, as well.

  3. Rob Lybeck says:

    This story alone left me so intrigued that I just logged onto amazon to purchase
    Harry’s book. Great stuff!

  4. Joseph says:

    What urban planners did in the mid-20th century to cities around the country, destroying so much of their heritage, is a horrible, miserable shame.

    Thanks for the interesting article.

    1. Joseph says:

      Oh, and Water Street exists in South Philadelphia from Reed to Wolf, aka “that road by the Target”, and for a block Ritner and Porter.

  5. Mary Welsch says:

    Thanks for sharing Harry, a real treat!

  6. rebecca says:

    This is interesting. In doing family genealogy, I ran across a news clipping of an ancestor who had a butter and egg delivery business on Water Street in the early 1900s – he sold the business to National Freight and Delivery. He kept an interest in the new company and they all went bankrupt during the depression. He dies shortly afterward, probably sped along from the stress of losing his horses which he loved. Makes me wonder where on Water St that business was. He lived on Noble St. so I would guess it would be in that area.

    The Cpatcha is a bear!

    1. Pat Hallam says:

      How I appreciate this article. I am always looking for information about this area of Early Philadelphia. As the family Historian I look to “flesh out” those early families according to their locations and occupations. One Ancestor lived in colonial Philadelphia on Water Street. He was a Rope Maker and the other, a gentleman signed an US Seamans Cetificate of Protection for his neighbor’s son . He also resided on Water Street and lived in a community that later founded and worshiped at the first English Speaking Lutheran Church, St Johns Evangelical. Ties to this area keep me seeking more information. Thanks

      1. I have a painted picture of that from 1720 says:

        If you are interested 4058890233 tel number

  7. Ray Dawson says:

    I have an old pottery pot or small bucket that has the address 68 Water Street, Phila. Pa in blue . Is this connected to the old water street and should I just throw it out?

    1. Gary H. Caufman says:

      I just read in the Philadelphia city directory that in 1853 68 water st. was owned by James B. Adams. He made and sold butter; You may have a butter bucket.

  8. StacieRourke says:

    My family lived at 68 Water Street according to the 1910 Census. He was a bartender in a saloon. Maybe you have a spittoon. Would love to see a picture of your bucket!

  9. Beverly says:

    I discovered a relative on the 1790 census who lived on Water Street. He is listed as “white male over 16.” I suspect the residence may be a home for men, as no females are listed. His age would be around 70+/-. Does anyone know if a home of this sort existed in that time period? Some of the possible “residents” are listed as “infirm” which makes me suspect it was a retirement home of some nature.

  10. Rachel Thomas says:

    My genealogy research has led me to John Milnor at 116 N. Water street in 1809. John Milnor is a common name for the time. A few years later he was at 85 N. WaterSt. I have not been able to find a map with numbers resembling 85N water street. Anyone have any information where this address was in comparison to Arch St.? Desperate and looking for any information. Thank you in advance,

  11. Valerie Cawley says:

    Just to set the record straight about the origin of Water Street and the woman who was inspired to develop the site, Esther Bowyer Lynn.

    Esther(nee King) widow of John Bowyer, shipwright (both born in England circa 1650) emigrated to the new world in 1682. When John died at Gunner’s Creek in 1688 Esther remarried John Lynn but “By 25 March 1691, widowed for the second time, as “Hester Lynn, Widdow,” leased from Thomas Tresse, a Philadelphia merchant, a piece of his bank lot between High (Market) and Mulberry (Arch) on Front Street, containing 17/2 feet in width and extending 250 feet eastward into the river. The lease was for a term of fifty years, she paying yearly to Thomas Tresse “the sum of El 12s, i d. in good Mer- chantable winter wheat delivered at the dwelling house of said Thomas Tress att Philadelphia or in current silver money to bee paid att every half year.” In addition, Esther was to build “a cartway under said Banck for the use of all people in the day tyme and likewise to make a Wharfe and staires in all respects according as the said Thomas Tress is obliged by virtue of his patent.” Also, “what houses buildings wharfes and staires shall be erected upon the premises . . . said Hester Lynn doth promise will keep in repairs at her own charge.” Among the witnesses to this lease was Josiah Elfreth who became Esther’s third husband.'”

    I suggest to Harry Kyriakodis, author of this piece, that the original street name KING had less to do with deference to a Monarch, Quote, “It was first named King Street, supposedly because goods crossing over it one way or the other had to pay a duty to the king of England.” and more to do with Esther’s maiden name and respect for her father Walter King, who was a member of the Philadelphia Monthly Meeting of Friends and a member of the Pennsylvania Assembly in 1682/3.’ He returned to England where he died in 1703

  12. Margaret Long says:

    I have an ancestor who, in his Early thirties, lived at he address “ water street East side” in 1790,with his wife and several children . His name was Heinrich (Henry) Fuhr. I’m imagining what was happening then, especially having lived there during the American Revolution

  13. Jan storey says:

    I just found an ancestor who was a Shoemaker and he lived on Water Street East side. His name was Richard Collier. He had 6 family members living there.

  14. Sandy B says:

    This was so interesting .I am a6th generation Philly Girl .this story was a nice find but the comments were even better.I would love to read more and see the bucket ((I hope he didn’t throw it out?))

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